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Across the Via dei Fori Imperiale from the Roman Forum is a long row of excavations where archaeologists are attempting to piece together the remains of other forums established by various Roman emperors beginning with Augustus.  



A statue of Augustus Caesar in front of the site of the Forum of Augustus.  Following the assassination of Julius Caesar by Brutus and Cassius, Octavian, as the leader of a military triumvirate sought battle with the forces of Brutus and Cassius in the eastern part of the empire.  Octavian promised the god Mars Ultor (the Roman god of revenge) a forum and temple in return for his assistance.  When Octavian became emperor as Augustus in 27 BC, he commissioned the construction of the Temple of Mars Ultor in a forum.  The forum served not only as a place of worship but also as a court building and military conference building.



Trajan's Column surrounded by the ruins of the Forum of Trajan from 106 AD. In the background are the churches of Santa Maria di Loreta (lt)(1575 AD) and Santissimo Nome di Maria Foro Traiano (rt)(1736 AD).  The column stands 35 meters high with pedestal and is 3.7 meters in diameter.  It's made of 20 drum-shaped sections of marble stacked.  Each section weighs 32 tons.  The drums have stair steps inside, thus making an internal stairway to the top.  The column was originally topped by a statue of Trajan.  In 1587, the statue was replaced with one of St. Peter.




A close-up of the frieze which winds around Trajan's Column 23 times.  The frieze pictorially tells the story of Trajan's military victories.  




The pedestal of Trajan's column.




The columns of Trajan's Forum.




Trajan's Market adjacent to the forum.  The Roman insula style of building was employed.  The ground floor was made into shop space and the upper floors were made for residential use.




The 3 white columns are about all that remains of Augustus' Temple of Mars Ultor.




Foundations in the Forum of Augustus.




Underground rooms in the Forum of Augustus.




Building remains in the Forum of Augustus.  Note the tile on the left.




A close-up of some of the original tile.




Other foundation parts from the Temple of Mars Ultor with Trajan's Market in the background.




Remains of the Temple of Mars Ultor.




Statue of Nerva Caesar.




Remains of the Temple of Minerva in the Forum of Nerva from 100 AD.




More ruins of the Temple of Minerva.




Close-up of the frieze on the Temple of Minerva.  We found a very good restaurant right around the corner and had a great lunch.